Introduction

English is the most dominant of languages all over the globe. Hence, it is important that a person should be able to use this language correctly. As we all know, in order to use any language in the most appropriate way, one must have a good command over the grammar part of that language, with tenses playing a prime role.
Without the proper use of correct tenses, which tell us about the time of any activity, no one can make a meaningful conversation in English. Hence it is really important for anyone to master the concept of Tenses before moving on to the more complex concepts.

Verb and its 3 Forms 

Verbs are those action words which tell us about an action, a state of being or an occurrence. Verbs are the most important form of any language and it is not possible to form a sentence or a question without a verb in it. 
There are three basic forms of verb. These can be understood by looking at the following examples:
First Form Second Form Third Form Verb + ing
Run Ran Run Running
Play Played Played Playing
Speak Spoke Spoken Speaking
 

3 Major Tenses

Like in any language, there are three major tenses in English Language. These tell us about the time when the work was/ is/ will be done. Below is a brief description of the three major tenses:
Tense
Description in Hindi
Example in English
Example in Hindi
Past Tense (भूत काल)
When we talk about a task that has been completed in the past, we use past tense
 I was sleeping.
मैं सो रहा था
Present Tense
When we talk about a task that is currently being done, we use present tense.
 She is sleeping.
वह सो रही है
Future Tense
When we talk about a task that will take place in the future, we use future tense.
 I will study  tomorrow.
मैं कल पढ़ुंगा

Past tense

When we talk about an action/ task that has already been completed in the past, we use past tense. Past tense can be used while referring to the events of the History, or even while telling someone about how your day went by.
Example in
Affirmative Sentence
Negative Sentence
Interrogative Sentence
English
She went to sleep
She didn’t go to sleep
Did she go to sleep?
Hindi
वह सोने चली गयी थी
वह सोने नहीं गयी थी
क्या वह सोने गयी थी?
There are broadly three categories of past tense, namely:
Tense
Description in Hindi
Example in English
Example in Hindi
Simple Past 
This tells about an activity that started and was completed in the past. 
 I went.
मैं गया था
Past Continuous
This tells about an activity that started in the past and was an ongoing activity. 
 I was going. 
मैं जा रहा था
Past Perfect
This tells about an activity that was completed in the past before another activity took place.
 I had gone there before she came.
मैं उसके आने से पहले वहाँ गया था

Present Tense

When we talk about an activity/ task that is taking place right now, we use present tense. 
Example in
Affirmative Sentence
Negative Sentence
Interrogative Sentence
English
She is sleeping
She is not sleeping
Is she sleeping?
Hindi
वह सो रही है
वह सो नहीं रही है
क्या वह सो रही है?
There are broadly three categories of present tense, namely:
Tense
Description in Hindi
Example in English
Example in Hindi
Simple Present
While talking about a habit or universal truth, we use simple present tense.
The sun rises in the east.
सूरज पूर्व से निकलता है
Present Continuous
To tell about the actions that are going on while you are talking about them, present continuous tense is used. 
The sun is rising. 
सूरज निकल रहा है
Present Perfect
To tell about the activities that have just completed, present perfect tense is used.
The sun has just risen. 
सूरज बस अभी निकला है

Future tense

Future tense tells about those activities, which are yet to happen sometime in the future. Those events or activities which have not yet started but are to happen in the future are referred to, by the use of this tense.
When we talk about those things that we are thinking of doing or hoping for them to happen, even if there is an uncertainty as to whether they will take place or not, we use Future tense.
Example in
Affirmative Sentence
Negative Sentence
Interrogative Sentence
English
She will sleep
She will not sleep
Will she sleep?
Hindi
वह सोएगी
वह नहीं सोएगी
क्या वह सोएगी?
There are broadly three categories of future tense, namely:
Tense
Description in Hindi
Example in English
Example in Hindi
Simple Future
While referring to an event that is to happen in the future, we use simple future tense.
 I will go.
मैं जाउँगा
Future Continuous
When we talk about an on-going event or activity that is bound to finish in the future, we use the future continuous tense.
 I will be going.
मैं जाउँगा
Future Perfect
When we talk about an action that will have been completed at a defined time in the future, we use future perfect tense.
 I will have  gone by then. 
मैं तब तक जा चुका होऊँगा

Grammar Rule for Verb Tenses

Some of the most commonly used grammar rules for verb tenses are as follows:
Tenses
Form of Verb
Example in English
Example in Hindi
Simple Past
 II Form
He came
वह आया था
Past Continuous
 Was/were + I form + ing
He was coming
वह आ रहा था
Past Perfect
 Had + III form 
He has come
वह आ चुका था
Simple Present
 I form 
He comes
वह आता है
Present Continuous
 Is/are + I form + ing
He is coming
वह आ रहा है
Present Perfect
 Has/have + III form
He has come
वह आ चुका है
Simple Future
 Will + I form
He will come
वह आएगा
Future Continuous
 Will + be + I form + ing
He will be coming
वह आ रहा होगा
Future Perfect
 Will + have + III form
He will have come
वह आ चुका होगा